Five hundred years ago in the district of Puri, in the village of
Bentapur adjacent to Brahmagiri Alalnath, there lived a great
devotee named Bhavananda Raya.
Bhavananda had five sons, the eldest of which was Ramananda.
Descendants of this family-line are known as Choudhury
It is said that Lord Caitanya visited the birth-place of Ramananda
in Alalnath every year.
Ramananda was the Governor of East and West Godavari and a minister
of King Prataparudra.
A great statesman of that period, Ramananda was also a poet and a
When Bhavananda met Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, the Lord embraced him
and said, "Formerly you appeared as Pandu, and your five sons
appeared as the five Pandavas."
The five sons of Bhavananda Raya were Ramananda Raya, Pattanayaka
Gopinatha, Kalanidhi, Sudhanidhi and Nayaka Vaninatha.
The Gauraganoddesadipika (120-124) states that Ramananda Raya was
Arjuna in his past incarnation.
He is also considered to have been an incarnation of the gopi
Lalita, although in the opinion of others he was an incarnation of
He was a most confidential devotee of Lord Caitanya.
Lord Caitanya said, "Although I am a sannyasi, My mind is sometimes
perturbed when I see a woman.
But Ramananda Raya is greater than Me, for he is always
undisturbed, even when he touches a woman."
Only Ramananda Raya was able to act in this way, no one should
Unfortunately there are rascals who imitate the activities of
In Lord Caitanya's final pastimes, both Ramananda Raya and Svarupa
Damodara were always engaged in reciting suitable verses from
Srimad Bhagavatam to pacify the Lord in His ecstatic feelings of
separation from Krsna.
When Lord Caitanya was about to leave for South India, Sarvabhauma
Bhattacarya advised him to meet Ramananda Raya for he declared that
there was no devotee as advanced in understanding the conjugal love
of Krsna and the gopis.
While touring South India Lord Caitanya met Ramananda on the bank
of the Godavari.
There they had a long discourse in which the Lord took the role of
a student and Ramananda Raya instructed the Lord.
Lord Caitanya concluded these discourses by saying, "My dear
Ramananda Raya, both you and I are madmen, and therefore we met
intimately, on an equal level."
Lord Caitanya advised Ramananda Raya to resign from his government
post and come back to Jagannatha Puri to live with Him.
It was Ramananda Raya who tactfully arranged a meeting between Lord
Caitanya and King Prataparudra of Orissa.
Ramananda Raya was present when the Lord performed water-sports
after the Rathayatra festival.
Lord Caitanya considered Ramananda Raya and Sanatana Gosvami to be
equal in their renunciation, for although Ramananda Raya was a
grhasta engaged in government service and Sanatana Gosvami was in
the renounced order of complete detachment from material
activities, they were both servants of the Supreme Personality of
Godhead and kept Krsna in the center of all their activities.
Ramananda Raya was one of the three and a half personalities with
whom Lord Caitanya discussed most confidential topics of Krsna
Lord Caitanya advised Pradyumna Misra to learn the science of Krsna
from Ramananda Raya.
As Subala always assisted Krsna in His dealing with Radharani in
Krsnalila, so Ramananda Raya assisted Lord Caitanya in His feelings
of separation from Krsna.
Ramananda Raya was the author of Jagannatha-vallabha-nataka.
In Iswar dasa's Caitanya Bhagavata (ed. A.B. Mohanty, Utkal
University) a comprehensive description is given of Lord Caitanya's
relationship with Ramananda Raya.
After hearing Ramananda Raya speak about the essence of
premabhakti, Lord Caitanya, with tears in His eyes and overwhelmed
with emotion, warmly embraced Ramananda.
In the Gurbhaktigita of Acyutananda dasa (Utkal University Vol. 3,
Chapter XLIX P. 176) the author describes Ramananda as Visakha,
which is supported by Svarupavarnana (ms. of Rupa Gosvami preserved
in Utkal University Library, Catalogue no. O.L. 382 ) and
Caitanyaganoddesa (ms. of Sadasiva Kaviraja, preserved in Orissa
Lord Caitanya's discourses with Raya Ramananda are fully described
First of all, Srila Ramananda Raya enunciated the system of the
He recited various verses about karmarpana, stating that everything
should be dedicated to the Lord.
He then spoke of detached action, knowledge mixed with devotional
service, and finally the spontaneous loving service of the
After hearing Srila Ramananda Raya recite some verses, Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu accepted the principle of pure devotional service devoid
of all the kinds of speculation.
After this, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu asked Ramananda Raya to explain
the higher platform of devotional service.
Then Srila Ramananda Raya explained unalloyed devotional service,
love of Godhead, serving the Lord with pure servitude as well as in
fraternity and parental love.
Finally he spoke of serving the Lord in conjugal love.
He then spoke of how conjugal love can be developed in various
This conjugal love attains its highest perfection in Srimati
Radharani's love for Krsna.
He next described the position of Srimati Radharani and the
transcendental mellows of love of God.
Srila Ramananda Raya then recited one verse of his own concerning
the platform of ecstatic vision, technically called
Srila Ramananda Raya also explained that all stages of conjugal
love can be attained through the mercy of the residents of
Vrndavana, especially by the mercy of the gopis.
All these subject matters were thus vividly described.
(BMO. P. 91-92)
The meeting of Lord Caitanya and Sri Ramananda Raya is further
described in GPC.
After bathing in the River Godavari, the Lord walked a little
distance from the bathing place and engaged in chanting the holy
name of Krsna.
At that time, accompanied by the sounds of music, Ramananda Raya
came there mounted on a palanquin to take his bath.
Many brahmanas, following the Vedic principles, accompanied
According to the Vedic rituals, Ramananda Raya took his bath and
offered oblations to his forefathers.
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu could understand that the person who had
come to bathe in the river was Ramananda Raya.
The Lord wanted so much to meet him that His mind immediately began
running after him.
Although the Lord was running after him mentally, He patiently
Ramananda Raya, seeing the wonderful sannyasi, then came to see
Srila Ramananda Raya then saw Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu as brilliant
as a hundred suns.
The Lord was covered by a saffron garment.
He was large in body and very strongly built, and His eyes were
like lotus petals.
When Ramananda Raya saw the wonderful sannyasi, he was struck with
He went to Him and immediately offered his respectful obeisances,
falling down like a rod.
The Lord stood up and asked Ramananda Raya to arise and chant the
holy name of Krsna.
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu then inquired whether he was Ramananda
Raya, and he replied, "Yes I am Your very low servant, and I belong
to the sudra community."
The Lord then embraced him very firmly.
Indeed, both the master and the servant almost lost consciousness
due to ecstatic love.
After composing themselves, they sat down and Sri Caitanya
Mahaprabhu said, "Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya has spoken of your good
qualities, and he has made a great endeavor to convince Me to meet
Indeed I have come here just to meet you.
It is very good that even without making an effort I have gotten
your interview here."
Ramananda Raya replied, "Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya thinks of me as
Even in my absence he is very careful to do me good.
By his mercy I have received Your interview here.
Consequently I consider that today I have become a successful human
I can see that You have bestowed special mercy upon Sarvabhauma
Therefore You have touched me, although I am untouchable.
This is due only to his love for You.
You are the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Narayana Himself, and I
am only a government servant interested in materialistic
Indeed, I am the lowest amongst men of the fourth caste.
You do not fear the Vedic injunctions stating that You should not
associate with a sudra.
You were not contemptuous of my touch, although in the Vedas You
are forbidden to associate with sudras.
At this time a brahmana Vaisnava came and invited the Lord for
lunch, and after arranging to meet Ramananda Raya again later the
After finishing His evening bath, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu sat down
and waited for Ramananda Raya to come.
Then Ramananda Raya, accompanied by one servant, came to meet
He offered his respectful obeisances, and the Lord embraced
Then they both began to discuss Krsna in a secluded place for the
Again the next evening Sri Ramananda Raya visited Mahaprabhu and
Mahaprabhu fondly embraced him and began questioning him as follows
Q:What is the best education among all kinds of learning?
A:Devotion for Krsna is by far the best learning.
Q:What is the achievement of a living being?
A:The best glory is to take the post of servant of Sri Radha and
Q:What is the best religion for a living being?
A:Love for Sri Radha-Govinda is the best religion.
Q:Which creature suffers the most?
A:A devotee who is suffering due to separation from the Lord.
Q:Who is the most liberated person?
A:One who loves Krsna is the most renounced person.
Q:Which is the best song?
A:Songs about the pastimes of Radha and Krsna.
Q:What is the greatest well-being for a living entity?
A:The association of Krsna's devotees.
Q:What is the only thing to remember?
A:Krsna's name, beauty and qualities.
Q:What is the only object of meditation?
A:The lotus feet of Radha Govinda.
Q:Which is the best place for a living entity to reside?
A:The place where Krsna's pastimes are performed.
Q:What is the best thing to hear?
A:The loving pastimes of Radha-Govinda
Q:What is the only subject matter for a living entity to sing?
A:The name of Radha Govinda.
Q:What is the fate of a person who has worldly desires and of a man
who desires liberation?
A:Animate body, and celestial body.
Q:What are the characteristics of a devotee and of a knowledgeable
A:A so-called intelligent person, who is like a crow, eats the
fruits of wisdom from the bitter Nim tree, whereas the devotee is a
cuckoo who drinks the nectar of love.
Gradually Ramananda Raya could understand the position of Sri
Caitanya Mahaprabhu, and when the Lord exhibited His real form,
Ramananda Raya fell unconscious.
The Lord then requested Ramananda Raya, "Now there is no
confidential activity unknown to you.
Keep all these talks a secret.
Please do not expose them anywhere and everywhere.
Since My activities appear to be like those of a madman, people may
take them lightly and laugh.
Indeed, I am a madman, and you are also a madman.
Therefore both of us are on the same platform."
The next day, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu begged Ramananda Raya to give
Him permission to leave, and at the time of farewell the Lord gave
him the following orders:
"Give up all material engagements and come to Jagannatha Puri.
I will return there very soon after finishing My tour and
The two of us shall remain together at Jagannatha Puri and happily
pass our time discussing Krsna."
Later, with the permission of King Prataparudra, Ramananda Raya
went to Puri.
Sri Svarupa Damodara was the dear-most friend of Sri Ramananda
Having written dramas on the pastimes of Krsna, Ramananda had them
performed before Sri Jagannatha deva by the Devadasis of the
Sri Ramananda Raya died after the disappearance of Sri Caitanya