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Aparadha is of four kinds: By Bhakti Vinod Thakura
(1) offences towards Sri Krsna – Naama Apradha
(2) offences towards krsna-nama – Seva Apradha
(3) offences towards krsna-svarupa (the deity form of the Lord) – Vaisnava Apradah
(4) offences towards the jivas (living entities who are infinitesimal particles of spirit belonging to the Lord) – Tattva Brahman
Srila Visvanath Cakravarti Thakura explains that there are four types of anarthas, recognized according to their origins:
1. Anarthas arising from previous sin
2. Anarthas arising from previous pious activities
3. Anarthas arising from imperfectly performed bhakti
4. Anarthas arising from offenses in devotional service
Anarthas Arising From Previous Sinful Activities:
Anarthas arising from previous sin are the five types of klesas, or material sufferings:
1. Avidya — ignorance (mistaking impermanent to be permanent etc.)
2. Asmita — false ego (bodily identification and the tendency to only accept sense perception)
3. Raga — attachment (the desire for material happiness and the means to achieve it)
4. Dvesa — hatred (of unhappiness and the causes of it)
5. Abhinivesa — acquired nature (absorption in bodily existence, including fear of death)
Anarthas Arising From Previous Pious Activities:
Anarthas arising from previous pious activities are attachments to sattva guna sense enjoyment, and mukti.
Anarthas Arising From The Improper Performance Of Bhakti:
Anarthas arising from improper performance of devotional service are a little more subtle Srila Visvanath Cakravarti Thakura says that, just as, along with the main plant, many weeds grow, similarly, by the cultivation of bhakti there appears acquisition of material wealth and other facilities, worship and respect by others, a comfortable position, fame etc. By their very nature, they have the power to influence the heart of the devotee, grow in size,and cover up the main plant intended for cultivation, bhakti.
Note: One should note carefully that these do not include seva aparadhas.
Anarthas Arising From Offenses:
Anarthas arising from offenses in devotional service are the ten offenses against the chanting of the holy names:
1. To blaspheme devotees
2. To consider the demigods equal to or independent of Visnu
3. To disobey one’s spiritual master
4. To blaspheme the Vedic (or related) scriptures
5. To consider the glories of chanting the holy name to be imagination
6. To give some mundane interpretation on the holy name
7. To commit sin on the strength of the holy name
8. To consider the chanting of Hare Krsna to be a karma kandiya activity
9. To preach the glories of the holy name to the faithless
10. To not have complete faith in the chanting of the holy names, and to maintain material attachments, even after hearing many instructions on the matter It is also an offense to be inattentive while chanting
Seva aparadhas do not fit into this category, because they are normally overcome in the course of the performance of one’s devotional service, due to the potency of the devotional activities, or through some activity specifically performed for their nullification.
However, if one commits seva aparadhas knowingly, that becomes the seventh offense against the chanting of the holy names.
A person who commits nama aparadha loses the mercy of the Lord in the form of His name, and therefore suffers in many ways, but if such a person humbly takes the appropriate remedial methods for his offenses (there are recommended remedies for each of the ten types) then he is able to gradually get the mercy of the name again, and his diseased condition is relieved.
The Removal of Anarthas
According to Srila Visvanath Cakravarti Thakura there are five grades of eradication of anarthas:
In the case of anarthas arising from nama aparadha the rate of nullification is as follows:
Anarthas arising from previous sin or piety are eradicated as follows:
Anarthas arising from improperly performed devotional service are eradicated as follows: